2 edition of Epidemic influenza in Canada: a study of the preparation and trial of an experimental vaccine. found in the catalog.
Epidemic influenza in Canada: a study of the preparation and trial of an experimental vaccine.
Barbara K. Buchner
Written in English
Thesis (M.A.) -- University of Toronto, 1954.
|The Physical Object|
The to H1N1 influenza pandemic is among the most deadly events in recorded human history, having killed an estimated 50 to million persons. Recent H5N1 avian influenza epizootics associated with sporadic human fatalities have heightened concern that a new influenza pandemic, one at least as lethal as that of , could be early , a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza. A vaccine is assessed by its efficacy – the extent to which it reduces risk of disease under controlled conditions – and its effectiveness – the observed reduction in risk after the vaccine is put into use. In the case of influenza, effectiveness is expected to be lower than the efficacy because it is measured using the rates of influenza-like illness, which is not always caused by.
Randomized, double-blind controlled phase 3 trial comparing the immunogenicity of high-dose and standard-dose influenza vaccine in adults 65 years of age and older. J Infect Dis. Jul (2) DiazGranados CA, Dunning AJ, Kimmel M, et al. Efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccine in older adults. These clinical practice guidelines are an update of the guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in , prior to the H1N1 influenza pandemic. This document addresses new information regarding diagnostic testing, treatment and chemoprophylaxis with antiviral medications, and issues related to institutional outbreak management for seasonal influenza.
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in China in and spread to other countries before brought under control. Because of a concern for reemergence or a deliberate release of the SARS coronavirus, vaccine development was initiated. Evaluations of an inactivated whole virus vaccine in ferrets and nonhuman primates and a virus-like-particle vaccine . The type of epidemiologic study that is used to describe a group of persons enrolled in a study who share some characteristic of interest and who are followed over a period of time to observe some health outcome is a(n): a. Case control study b. Cross-sectional study c. Cohort study d. Experimental study.
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The research team injected CFS patients with either mL normal saline or mL of Fluviral S/F (IAF BioVac Inc, Canada), which is a whole virus vaccine containing antigens of A/Texas/36/91(H 1 N 1), A/Beijing/32/92(H 3 N 2) and B/Panama/45/90, recommended for the influenza season by the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Cited by: 7.
Vaccine development, research and purchase should be priority activities in planning for pandemic influenza on the federal level, as pandemic viruses might be resistant to antivirals or develop drug resistance due to widespread use,50 The goal of developing and utilizing a pandemic influenza vaccine will differ from the seasonal flu vaccine.
In a preclinical study [36,59], μg of influenza vaccine was administered to mice with microneedles, and in a clinical study, 15 μg of influenza vaccine was administered using microneedles as in the preclinical study.
In this preclinical study with mice, 3 μg of antigen was coated, and the amount of vaccine delivered was : Hye Rin Jeong, Joon Yong Bae, Jee Hyun Park, Seung Ki Baek, Gayeong Kim, Man Seong Park, Jung Hwan P.
The H1N1 influenza pandemic exposed strengths and weaknesses of the global plan in place to deal with emerging infectious disease threats. This article reviews and critiques the H1N1 pandemic.
A key focus of NIAID’s influenza research program is developing a universal flu vaccine, or a vaccine that provides robust, long-lasting protection against multiple subtypes of flu, rather than a select few. Such a vaccine would eliminate the need to update and administer the seasonal flu vaccine each year and could provide protection against newly emerging flu strains, potentially.
The goal of the final phase is to control epidemic influenza through active immunization of healthy school-aged children with the cold-adapted, trivalent, live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and at-risk children with the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) through a school-based vaccination program.
Alexandrova, G. et al. Study of live recombinant cold-adapted influenza bivalent vaccine of type A for use in children: an epidemiological control trial.
Vaccine 4. The identity of the study vaccines was known only by the trial statistician, the intermediary clinical trials research organization, and the vaccine study nurse. Participants, investigators, study coordinator, laboratory technician, and data analyst were blinded until the data analysis was completed and a draft manuscript written.
This book gave me far more than I ever wanted to know about the Great Influenza Epidemic of It begins in September of with the founding of the Johns Hopkins University, with its emphasis on medical research. An M2e-flagellin fusion vaccine (STFxM2e) was also tested in healthy young volunteers, aged as reported in the first Phase I clinical trial study by VaxInnate Corp.
(Cranbury, NJ, USA) [76, 78]. Low doses of flagellin-M2 vaccines ( and µg doses) were found to be safe and tolerated in subjects tested. Another study was a randomized controlled trial of health care workers which investigated the effect that capsules of catechins and theanine from green tea had on clinically-defined influenza.
That study found that the rate of influenza infection was approximately three times lower in the catechin/theanine group than in the placebo group. Vaccine. The seed virus for the production of the experimental influenza A (H5N1) vaccine was generated from the human isolate influenza A/Vietnam// (H5N1) virus with.
“The United States was not the only country in possession of the Rockefeller Institute’s experimental bacterial vaccine. “A report from the Institute states: “Reference should be made that before the United States entered the war (in April ) the Institute had resumed the preparation of anti-meningococcic serum, in order to meet.
Introduction. Influenza viruses, members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, are among the most diverse emerging infectious agents and cause predominantly respiratory disease in humans.
Of the three influenza virus types (A, B and C), influenza A is the best known for its ability to drift, re-assort and cause yearly seasonal outbreaks in the temperate regions of the world.
The strongest weapon against pandemic is the truth. Read why in the definitive account of the Flu Epidemic. Magisterial in its breadth of perspective and depth of research, The Great Influenza provides us with a precise and sobering model as we confront the epidemics looming on our own horizon.
As Barry concludes, "The final lesson of This showed obvious protection afforded by the vaccine. 40 The study also pointed to the effectiveness of vaccine given before an epidemic occurred and the value of an "alert system" that was organized to provide information on the prevalence of influenza B throughout the general population.
Also, it was shown that influenza B, as well as. This study suggested that the current recommendation for two doses of vaccine are overkill and that a single dose is quite sufficient. Arepanrix, an ASAdjuvanted H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine similar to Pandemrix and also made by GSK, was authorized by Canada's Minister of Health on 21 October Adverse events.
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads across a large region (either multiple continents or worldwide) and infects a large proportion of the population. In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly.
There have been five influenza pandemics during the last years, with the Spanish flu. The strongest weapon against pandemic is the truth. Read why in the definitive account of the Flu Epidemic.
Magisterial in its breadth of perspective and depth of research, The Great Influenza provides us with a precise and sobering model as we confront the epidemics looming on our own horizon. As Barry concludes, "The final lesson of The Salk vaccine trial also served as one of the earliest and largest examples of informed consent, the process by which researchers get permission to experiment on human subjects, Oshinsky said.
Experience in Between and12 epidemics of influenza were recorded 7 by the United States Public Health Service on the basis of excessive mortality accompanying sharp epidemic waves of acute respiratory disease. The most prominent were those of,andbut others such as were .Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in, and The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thoroughly characterized.
All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of influenza. Please cite this paper as: bin‐Reza et al. () The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(4), – There are limited data on the use of masks and respirators to reduce transmission of influenza.